"Dress Codes: How the Laws of Fashion Made History" by Richard T. Ford

Dress codes are as old as clothing itself. For centuries, clothing has been a wearable status symbol; fashion, a weapon in struggles for social change; and dress codes, a way to maintain political control. Merchants who dressed like princes and butchers’ wives wearing gem-encrusted crowns were public enemies in medieval societies structured by social hierarchy and defined by spectacle. In Tudor England, silk, velvet and fur were reserved for the nobility and ballooning pants called “trunk hose” could be considered a menace to good order. The Renaissance era Florentine patriarch Cosimo de Medici captured the power of fashion and dress codes when he remarked, “One can make a gentleman from two yards of red cloth.” Dress codes evolved along with the social and political ideals of the day, but they always reflected struggles for power and status. In the 1700s, South Carolina’s “Negro Act” made it illegal for Black people to dress “above their condition.” In the 1920s, the bobbed hair and form-fitting dresses worn by free-spirited flappers were banned in workplaces throughout the United States and in the 1940s the baggy zoot suits favored by Black and Latino men caused riots in cities from coast to coast.

Even in today’s more informal world, dress codes still determine what we wear, when we wear it—and what our clothing means. People lose their jobs for wearing braided hair, long fingernails, large earrings, beards and tattoos or refusing to wear a suit and tie or make-up and high heels. In some cities, wearing sagging pants is a crime. And even when there are no written rules, implicit dress codes still influence opportunities and social mobility. Silicon Valley CEOs wear t-shirts and flip flops, setting the tone for an entire industry: women wearing fashionable dresses or high heels face ridicule in the tech world and some venture capitalists refuse to invest in any company run by someone wearing a suit.

In Dress Codes, law professor and cultural critic Richard Thompson Ford presents an insightful and entertaining history of the laws of fashion from the middle-ages to the present day. Dress Codes explores the importance of day-to-day popular culture for political power, social hierarchy and individual autonomy.  The global scope of the fashion industry and the international influence of rules and norms of dress and self-presentation are an important and overlooked part of the globalization of trade, popular culture and political ideology.  This intrepid blend of cultural criticism, jurisprudence, history and sociology adds a critical qualitative methodology to the study of Global Economies, the theme of the the Pierre Elliot Trudeau Foundation’s Leadership Program 2022-2025 programming cycle. 

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Richard Thompson Ford

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Dr. Richard Thompson Ford is a lawyer, a law professor at Stanford University, and an expert in civil rights and antidiscrimination law. he is a…